XPander optical detectors are recommended for use as general purpose smoke detectors for early warning of fire in most installations. XPander optical detectors operate on the well established light scatter principle. The optical design of the XPander optical detector allows it to respond to a wide spectrum of fires. The detector is calibrated so that XPander is highly reliable in detecting fires but has enhanced immunity to false alarms.The stability of the detector in terms of high reliability and low false alarm rate is further increased by the use of algorithms to decide when the detector should change to the alarm state. This removes the likelihood of a detector producing an alarm as a result of smoke from smoking materials or from another non-fire source.